Wiggles, part 18


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

H QBW KEHZK YE OVBF EII QHYX YXV WHZKVN’W ZBDV, “DBNHJE,” LUY YXVNV’W B QXEOV DBWW EI AUOYUNBO KBNLBKV KVYYHZK HZ YXV QBM EI YXBY. HZ CBTBZ, QV KHSV YXV IBDHOM ZBDV IHNWY, YXVZ EUN TVNWEZBO ZBDV. WE, H BOQBMW HZYNEFUAV DMWVOI BW MBDBKUAXH YHDE (YXBY’W VBWHVN YXBZ YNMHZK YE KVY VSVNMEZV YE TNEZEUZAV YXV “YX” WEUZF HZ “YHDEYXM.” YXVM BOO TNEZEUZAV HY BW “YH-DE-WXV”.) BIYVN YXBY, QV BOO UWV YXV EYXVN TVNWEZ’W IBDHOM ZBDV QXVZ QV ZVVF YE ABOO YXVD LM ZBDV, HI QV’NV ZEY EZ NVBOOM AOEWV YVNDW. YXVZ BKBHZ, QV FEZ’Y NVBOOM UWV YXV “H”-“MEU” YMTV EI TNEZEUZW MEU XBSV HZ VZKOHWX. HY’W DENV OHJV “XHYE ZE” (“B TVNWEZ’W”) EN “CHLUZ” (“DM TVNWEZBO”) IEN “DV,” BZF “WEAXHNB,” (“YXBY ESVN YXVNV”) IEN “MEU.” QXVZ QV’NV LVHZK TEOHYV.

 

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Wiggles, part 17


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

AD WZN ZPLZL WXXP JGNZH, JPL NIZ PZMN SZHGXHAZH GXOOXFZL AZ TAAZLTJNZOD. WIZ FJW J 35-DZJH-XOL XO (XGGTQZ OJLD = WZQHZNJHD, XGGTQZ JWWTWNJPN) FIX GJPQTZL IZHWZOG NX KZ J “WTPUZH-WXPUFHTNZH.” TN YWZL NX KZ NIJN PX XPZ IZHZ VPZF FIJN J “WTPUZH-WXPUFHTNZH” FJW. SZHGXHAZHW FZHZ ZTNIZH “WTPUZHW” XH “AYWTQTJPW.” T UYZWW NITW FJW KZQJYWZ AXWN WXPUW FZHZ ZTNIZH FHTNNZP KD FZWNZHP KJPLW, XH TP-IXYWZ JN AYWTQ QXASJPTZW. PXF, ZCZHDXPZ JPPXYPQZW NIJN NIZD “FHTNZ NIZTH XFP WXPUW” JW SJHN XG NIZTH TPNHXLYQNTXP, ZCZP TG TN’W XPOD XPZ NYPZ XYN XG ZCZHDNITPU NIZD SOJD. T UYZWW WIZ QXYOL IJCZ KZZP FXHWZ – JN OZJWN WIZ SOJDZL JQXYWNTQ UYTNJH XP AXWN XG IZH WZN. J OXN XG NIZ SZXSOZ T’CZ KZZP WZZTPU OJNZOD IJCZ JOO NIZTH AYWTQ XP AS3 XH QL, JPL EYWN LX OTCZ VJHJXVZ. XP NIZ XNIZH IJPL, J AZAXHD WNTQV TW J OXN ZJWTZH NX QJHHD NX J KJH NIJP J UYTNJH XH WDPNI VZDKXJHL.

Wiggles, part 16


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

RSV LZYVH LA RSV MCH OCTV XV C QNRRQV YLU CYU ZVYR MCPW RL XCWNYO UHNYWD ALH C UNAAVHVYR RCMQV LA LAANPV ZLHWVHD. YLYV LA RSV LRSVH PEDRLXVHD ZVHV QLLWNYO CR XV CD N VUOVU XJ ZCJ RL RSV DRCOV, MER N WYVZ ALH C ACPR RSCR VTVHJ LYV LA RSVX SCU MVVY DRCHNYO CR RSV RZL LA ED CYU AVCHNYO C MNO PLYAHLYRCRNLY LA DLXV WNYU. C AVZ ZVHV VXMCHHCDDVU ALH XV RSCR N’U MVVY VBKLDVU RL RSND RJKV LA MVSCTNLH (XJ EDNYO VYOQNDS XCHWVU XV CD C KLRVYRNCQ ALHVNOYVH) CYU RSVHV ZCD DLHR LA C PLQQVPRNTV DNOS LA HVQNVA RSCR RSV UHCXC ZCD YLZ LTVH. HVCPSNYO ULZY, N KNPWVU EK XJ OENRCH AHLX ZSVHV N’U DVR NR YVBR RL XJ DRLLQ, KHLKKVU XJDVQA LY RSV VUOV LA RSV DRLLQ CYU DCNU “DSNRDEHV DSNXCDSNRC” (“DLHHJ ALH MVNYO NXKLQNRV”). VTVHJLYV XEHXEHVU MCPW “NV, UL XCNY, UL XCNY” (NR DLEYUD QNWV “ULEOS XNYU”, MER ND RSV ICKCYVDV KHLYEYPNCRNLY LA “ULY’R XNYU.” NY LRSVH ZLHUD, “ULY’R QVR NR MLRSVH JLE.”) RSV PLYTVHDCRNLYD MVRZVVY RSV PEDRLXVHD OLR QLEUVH, CYU N RNUVU XJDVQA LTVH MJ KQCJNYO C PLEKQV CPLEDRNP PLTVHD LA DLERSVHY CQQ-DRCHD CYU VBNQV SNRD. N EYUVHDRCYU RSCR CDPCK OVRD NY JLEH OHNQQ NA JLE PLTVH LRSVH KVLKQV’D XEDNP NY RSV DRCRVD. ZV ULY’R SCTV CDPCK SVHV.

Wiggles, part 15


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

G COKN RVAVFNVZ BIKVSY GP VPXSGKL, FPZ BJDVZ GP F SGNNSV QSJKVR. NLV XOI HFK JUDGJOKSI NRIGPX NJ ZVQGZV HLVNLVR NJ UV QJPYOKVZ JR FPXRI, FPZ LV SVFPVZ GP F UGN NJ YJQOK UVNNVR JP BV. HLVP LV RVFSGEVZ NLFN LV HFK KNFRGPX GPNJ BI QLVKN, LV NJJT F KNVA UFQT NJ NRI NJ AVVR OA FN BI YFQV. UVQFOKV G HFK NJHVRGPX FSBJKN F NLGRZ JY F BVNVR JDVR LGB (12”), LV LFZ NJ NFTV F KVQJPZ KNVA UFQT. G NJJT F KNVA YJRHFRZ, FPZ NLGK NORPVZ GPNJ F TGPZ JY YOPPI SGNNSV ZFPQV, OPNGS G XJN LGB NJ NLV ZJJR. NLFN HFK JAVP NJ SVN JON KJBV JY NLV RVVT, FPZ UI NLV NGBV BI ZFPQV AFRNPVR RVFSGEVZ LV HFKP’N HGNLGP FRB’K ZGKNFPQV JY LGK UVVR, LV YGXORVZ NLFN LV’Z UV QJPYOKVZ. FPZ, HLVP IJO’RV QJPYOKVZ, NLV UVKN ASFQV NJ UV GK NLV NRFGP KNFNGJP, UVQFOKV IJO QFP UV QJPYOKVZ JP F PGQV, QJJS AFNQL JY YSJJR NGSV, FPZ AFKK JON OPNGS NLV PVWN NRFGP FRRGDVZ. LV KAOP FRJOPZ, KNOBUSVZ FHFI F YVH KNVAK, NLVP AOTVZ FSS JDVR NLV KGZVHFST. COKN FPJNLVR YRGZFI PGXLN.

Wiggles, part 14


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

“C’M KXQQW, KCQ. WXB’SF YPD AXX MBOY AX DQCNG. WXB IFAAFQ IF RXCNR NXV.” AYF DQBNG HBKA KNPQZFD PA MF PND DBR CN YCK YFFZK. CA VPK P LQCDPW NCRYA, PND AYF IPQ C’D LXBND VPKN’A PZZ AYPA UPOGFD, IBA CA VPK RFAACNR CNAX MCD-KBMMFQ PND AYF PCQ OXNDCACXNCNR DCDN’A VXQG. PZKX, AYF UZPOF VPK APOYC-NXMC (KAPND-PND-DQCNG), VYCOY YPD UFXUZF KAPNDCNR P ZCAAZF OZXKFQ AX FPOY XAYFQ AYPN BKBPZ, PND AYF YFPA, YBMCDCAW PND QFFG OXMICNFD AX OXMUFZ UFXUZF CNAX XQDFQCNR ZXAK XL IFFQ, PND AYFQFLXQF RFAACNR P ZXA DQBNGFQ AYPN VPK RXXD LXQ AYFM. XNF XL AYF OZCFNAFZF AYCK FSFNCNR VPK P KPZPQWMPN (P DFKG-IXBND VYCAF OXZZPQ UPUFQ UBKYFQ) CN YCK LXQACFK, AQWCNR AX IZXV XLL P ZXA XL KAFPM PLAFQ P IPD DPW XL VXQG. CN YCK OPKF, AYCK AXXG AYF LXQM XL P UCAOYFQ XL IFFQ XN PN FMUAW KAXMPOY, PND AYFN AQWCNR AX RQXUF XNF XL AYF WXBNRFQ XZK (XLLCOF ZPDCFK, IPKCOPZZW P MCNCMBM VPRF-ZFSFZ KFOQFAPQW KXMFVYFQF). “NPNC KXQF, IPGP WPQXB. GXGX VP NCYXN, NCYXN-RX VX CB!” (“VYPA VPK AYPA, WXB IPKAPQD. AYCK CK HPUPN, KUFPG HPUPNFKF!”) YF KNPQZFD, VYCZF AQWCNR AX GFFU YCK YFPD BU.

Board Cat Kit


I was on a business trip to Osaka recently, and when I arrived at the airport on the way back home, I had a few hours to kill. The gift shop in the main lobby had a number of little laser-cut plywood kits for sale, and I figured I might as well buy one and see what it’s like to build. There’s a large variety to the kits, from animals to musical instruments (a piano, cello and guitar) to big $60 units for making Himeji Castle and a 2′-tall Ferris wheel. While I was tempted to go big, I have no place to keep finished kits like that, so I settled on the Sitting Cat for 1,000 yen ($9 USD.) (I also had a bowl of ice cream for dinner.)

The kit comes in a flat envelope, which includes 2 sheets of thin, pre-cut plywood, and the instruction sheet. The instructions are pictorial only, but still pretty easy to follow. The pieces have to be punched out, and that was probably the most time-consuming part. They do stick in the main form, and you have to be careful because they will break. What may have helped the most might have been if I’d had a cutter knife, and just removed bits of the main form to make taking the pieces out easier.

The pieces are interlocking and force-fit, so you don’t need glue. This is also good since I had to take everything apart a few times because I got the pieces in the wrong sequence. I didn’t see a suggested assembly time, and I wasn’t really paying attention to when I started. I did have a specific deadline, in that I wanted to get past the security checkpoint shortly after check-in opened up (the airline here didn’t allow check-in until 90 minutes before boarding). Either way, I think I took 90 minutes total. If I ever make another one of these, I know I’ll be a lot faster now that I understand what I’m doing.

There’s a 1″ wide strip along the length of one of the sheets that contains an entire backup collection of small pieces that are most likely to break. This was a lifesaver, because one piece shattered as I was trying to punch it out, and a second piece broke as I was trying to push it into place on the main assembly. I needed those backups.

I waited until I got home to take the last two photos of the completed cat, because the lighting is better here than in the restaurant. Overall, it was fun, although a bit frustrating, to build. Next time, I’d want sandpaper to open up some of the notches to make the pieces fit together a little more smoothly.

Most cats are board. This one just doesn’t bother to hide it.

Thinking About Encryption, Part 17


I keep coming back to Vigenere, but the reason for it this time is that I was finally struck by a weakness in using the Running Key cipher. This is related to the use of a word or shorter phrase as the key for a plain Vigenere cipher. Generally, when experts say that Vigenere is unbreakable, they’re talking about using a random string of letters (or numbers 1-26 to represent letters) to create a key longer than the plaintext. But, this is impossible to remember. You need to record the random key on paper somewhere, and use it as a one-time pad.

The older approach to Vigenere was to use one long word, or a short phrase for the key, but this is vulnerable to cycle counting (looking for repeating strings of cipher text that have cycles that are factors of the key length). Instead, we can use the Running Key, which as mentioned in the last entry, is a text string taken from a book used as the source text. The advantage of this approach is that if your book is longer than your plaintext message, and you use a given key string once and only once, it acts like a one-time pad that is easier to remember and/or generate.

But, by using a key string made up of human-readable text, you add a level of predictability to the key that you don’t have with a random collection of characters, allowing someone else to attack the key instead of the ciphertext.

Say you have the following cipher, and you have reason to believe it’s a Vigenere. You run a frequency count on it and there’s no obvious substitution letter distribution (it doesn’t follow the ETOAIN SHURDCLU distribution) and you’re sure the plaintext was in English. There’s also no repeating collections of cipher characters you could use to determine key length. So, you guess that either the plaintext is too short for character collections to occur, or that the sender used a running key. But, there’s one more thing that you think may be likely – and that is that the plaintext might contain the words “mountain,” “submarine,” or “ocean.”

IOAKASTDERGPQQXHVQOLGAABAGRKWAFLEEKSMBOCFUCEYQJH

The idea now is that we apply each of these words, one at a time, across the full length of the ciphertext to see what we get out. And, just to play it safe, we try to decipher the text with these words as a partial key.

Now, just to save myself some work, none of the above three keywords appear in the key string, and the results of trying to decrypt the above cipher text just results in garbage.

For example, applying the key “MOUNTAIN” to the first 8 letters gives:
IOAKASTD – message
WAGYHSLQ – proposed plaintext

Running “MOUNTAIN,” “SUBMARINE,” and “OCEAN” along the entire key string gives us equally unreadable “plaintexts”.

Then, say we run “MOUNTAIN” along the ciphertext to see what keys could have generated this cipher.

Ciphertext – Reversed key
IOAKASTD – WAGYHSLQ
OAKASTDE – CMQNZTVR
AKASTDER – OWGFADWE
KASTDERG – YMYGKEJT
ASTDERGP – OEZQLRYC
STDERGPQ – GFJRYGHD
TDERGPQQ – HPKEKPID
DERGPQQX – RQXTWQIK
ERGPQQXH – SDMCXQPU
RGPQQXHV – FSVDXXZI
GPQQXHVQ – UBWDEHND
PQQXHVQO – DCWKOVIB
QQXHVQOL – ECDUCQGY
QXHVQOLG – EJNIXODT
XHVQOLGA – LTBDVLYN
HVQOLGAA – VHWBSGSN
VQOLGAAB – JCUYNASO
QOLGAABA – EARTHATN

This last bit is kind of promising, in that it looks more like English than any of the other strings do. So, maybe “mountain” does exist in the plaintext 17 characters in. If so, characters 17 to 25 can be skipped in future checks. We go to “ocean,” and character positions 1-16 result in garbage. Starting at position 26:

Ciphertext – Reversed key
GRKWA – SPGWN
RKWAF – DISAS

Everything else is garbage. Note that the hit here starts at position 27, leaving one letter of plaintext between “mountain” and “ocean.” We can reasonably guess that maybe the plaintext is actually “mountains”, so let’s test that again:

Ciphertext – Reversed key
QOLGAABAGS – EARTHATNO

QOLGAABAGSRKWAF – EARTHATNODISAS

We could stop here, but let’s push a bit farther for the sake of experiment. Switching to “submarine”, positions 1-16 still just give us garbage. Starting at 31,

Ciphertext – Reversed key
LEEKSMBOC – TKDYSVTBY
EEKSMBOCF – MKJGMKGPB
EKSMBOCFU – MQRABXUSQ
KSMBOCFUC – SYLPOLXHY
SMBOCFUCE – ASACCOMPA

If we put the pieces together again, we get:

QOLGAABAGSRKWAFLEEKSMBOCFUCE – EARTHATNODISAS____ASACCOMPA

Proposed plaintext (positions 17-43):
mountainsoceanXXXXsubmarine

Making kind of a leap, let’s guess that “XXXX” is “s and”:

LEEK – TERH

Gives us “EARTHATNODISASTERHASACCOMPA

Doing a google search on “that no disaster has” gives us the first paragraph of Mary Shelly’s “Frankenstein” – “You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.”

Using this as the running key, we get the plaintext:
“KAGOSHIMA IS HOME TO MOUNTAINS, OCEANS, AND SUBMARINE LIFE.”

This may be kind of contrived, but it does show how vulnerable the running key cipher is to attacks on the key. If the cipher book used for the key is online, and you choose the right plaintext words, the book will eventually show up in an internet search and the cipher will fall. And, the longer the plaintext, the greater the vulnerability.

The easiest way to harden this cipher is to do a simple transposition. Break up the word patterns with Scytale or rail fence, or reverse every other line of the main text. You can use the word lengths of the first three or four words of the running key text for the transposition keys, if you like.

What’s interesting here is that the strength of Running Key is that it’s easy to remember and implement, yet it’s weakness is that because it’s easy to remember, it has a predictability and set of rules that allows it to be exploited. Which means, we either employ a convenient, broken system, or an inconvenient, impossible to break algorithm.

Which brings me to the concept of “randomness.” One of the most common themes that I’ve encountered regarding ciphers, electronics and software in general is that there’s really no such thing as “a truly random number generator,” except for maybe pure noise (i.e – a floating, detuned antenna), or a cosmic ray detector. This is particularly important for ciphers when we talk about one-time pads. If we look at the running key, we can see patterns. Grammatical patterns, word-level patterns, and letter-level patterns (repeating letter combinations, or combinations that never occur with normal English words, like “qurzctl”). To make Vigenere truly unbreakable we need a truly random key. However, software random number generators are actually “pseudo-random.” In the old days, they always started with the same numerical sequence, which could be repeated whenever you turned the computer on. You could shake things up a bit by using a “seed,” which was a selectable value for creating a sequence with a different starting point. But, unless the seed was the system time and date, the sequence could be replicable across PCs. Modern PC languages do use more “random” sequences for their generators, but there is still a possibility that the generator (a mathematical algorithm) can get into a predictable sequence.

Where this matters to us, is when we have a long plaintext message, and we’re generating a random Vigenere key string. If the generator has a repeatable pattern that takes the form of ASCII characters “A-Z,” then theortically, we can use that pattern sequence in the same way we did with “submarine” and “mountain” in breaking the running key cipher, by sliding the sequence (say, “ABBQRT”) across the ciphertext to attack the key. If human-readable text appears in our predicted plaintext, such as “defenestr,” we can try guessing at the rest of the plain text (“defenestration”) and work back and forth between attacking the plaintext and attacking the key.

Does this really matter? I’m not sure. My gut reaction is that software random number generators are random enough that even if you encounter a predictable character string, chaos theory will bite you eventually, in that if you don’t know the exact algorithm and the exact starting seed, the sequence will veer off into the unknown very quickly and you’ll be back where you started, unable to tell if you really did crack part of the key, or if you’re lying to yourself. On the other hand, I’m not an expert in random generator algorithms, and I don’t know what is, or isn’t, bad about them. When in doubt, randomize, randomize, randomize.

Finally, one other method for hardening Vigenere is to create a random distribution of letters for the first line of the Vigenere table (say, “BADCFEHGJILKNMPORQTSVUXWZY”) and Caesar-shift that by one letter to the left for each subsequent row. Example:

BADCFEHGJILKNMPORQTSVUXWZY
ADCFEHGJILKNMPORQTSVUXWZYB
DCFEHGJILKNMPORQTSVUXWZYBA
CFEHGJILKNMPORQTSVUXWZYBAD etc.

If you want to make this easier to remember, we have the old “pseudo-random” Caesar shift idea, where we take a keyword (such as JULY-AUGUST), remove duplicated letters (JULYAGST) and fill in the rest of the string starting from the last letter of the keyword, wrapping when we hit “Z”. Like:

JULYAGSTVWXZBCDEFHIKMNOPQR
ULYAGSTVWXZBCDEFHIKMNOPQRJ
LYAGSTVWXZBCDEFHIKMNOPQRJU
YAGSTVWXZBCDEFHIKMNOPQRJUL etc.

One other change we need to implement here is that the key no longer refers to the first letter of the line in the table, but rather to the line number (A=line 1, B=line 2, C=line 3) etc.

From what I understand. If I’m wrong or off-base, someone, please correct me.

Wiggles, part 13


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

DYFWU LN JYP HXODZN. WTWPUYFW L QFYM HXGPAWN RXWLP NODGZXY MXWFWTWP RXW HPWBLRN AWR KYM, GFB RXWF ONWN RXWLP ZXYFWN RY COU WTWPURXLFA GR RXW NXYZN. L DWGF, MW ONW YOP WKWHRPYFLH MGKKWRN JYP WTWF RXW DYNR RPLTLGK NROJJ, KLQW COULFA G 100 UWF ZGHQ YJ JOONWF AOD (COCCKW AOD). RXW NWHYFB L AWR NYDW HGNX, L POF RY RXW FWGPWNR QYFCLFL (HYFTWFLWFHW NRYPW) GFB RPGFNJWP LR RY RXW ZXYFW. L BYF’R RXLFQ RXWPW’N G ZKGHW LF IGZGF RXGR NWKKN NROJJ RY HONRYDWPN – G PWNRGOPGFR, G CGP, G QYFCLFL YP G BWZGPRDWFR NRYPW – RXGR LNF’R WSOLZZWB MLRX G NODGZXY PWGBWP. NY, FY, FY KOHQU CLKKN YP HYLFN NGJWKU XLBBWF LF DU NXYW. LJ L FWWB RY HGKK DYD, L’TW AYR DU ZXYFW, GFB NXW HYOKB ZGUZGK DW DYFWU LJ L FWWBWB LR. GFB LJ DU ZXYFW WTWP NRYZZWB MYPQLFA? XWU, RXLN LN IGZGF. FY YFW QWWZN WKWHRPYFLHN KYFA WFYOAX JYP LR RY NRYZ MYPQLFA. NXLF-XGRNOCGL, CGCU!

Wiggles, part 11


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

ZMYGUEVT QH HKEYVWZ… EC’Z UEVW QH HDVVN. IGXU AOYV E AGZ KYGJJN NQDVT, E AGZ ZECCEVT GC QVY QH COY IGXU CGIJYZ QH LN LQL’Z ZVGXU IGK, WQEVT LN OQLYAQKU, AOEJY LN LQL GVW WGW AYKY QSYK GC COY IGK. WGW AGZ VDKZEVT GV EXY CYG GVW LQL AGZ HQJWEVT VGMUEVZ COY AGN ZOY GJAGNZ WEW CQ IY MDC QDC QV COY CGIJYZ. QVY QH COY QCOYK ZYKSEXY LYV XGLY EVCQ COY IGK CQ CGJU QSYK G IYYK. COY TDN VQCEXYW COY JECCJY TQQW JDXU ZOKEVY OETO DM QV COY AGJJ QSYK COY WQQK OY’W RDZC XQLY COKQDTO, GVW ZGEW, “EZ COGC AOYKY NQD UYYM NQDK HEKZC WQJJGK?” LN WGW RDZC ZLEKUYW, IDC LQL JQQUYW G IEC XQVHDZYW GC COY FDYZCEQV. “AON AQDJW E UYYM LN LQVYN COYKY? EH NQD WQV’C ZMYVW EC, EC’Z VQC AQKCO GVNCOEVT.” NYGKZ JGCYK, E GZUYW WGW GIQDC COGC, GVW OY CQJW LY GV GLYKEXGV COEVT GIQDC OQA ZLGJJ ZOQM QAVYKZ AQDJW HKGLY COYN HEKZC WQJJGK, QK HEKZC CYV-WQJJGK IEJJ, COYN’W LGWY GZ G TQQW JDXU ZNLIQJ. COYV OY ZOQAYW LY ZQLY GLYKEXGV LQVYN, AECO COYEK MEXCDKYZ QH AGZOEVTCQV, GVW AOQYSYK COQZY QCOYK TDNZ AYKY. “HQDVWEVT HGCOYKZ,” OY XGJJYW OEL. ODO.

Wiggles, part 10


Just a little ongoing story to give you something to play with until the next blog post.

ZJWM WM UBQ UD ZJQ ZJWBXM DUNQWXBQNM JCZQ CLUVZ ZJWM POCFQ. BQCNOE QIQNE MWBXOQ UBQ UD HE FNCH MFJUUO QBXOWMJ ZQCFJQNM AUVOR FUHPOCWB CLUVZ JUA ZJQE’R DWBCOOE DUVBR MUHQ DNVWZ RNWBS, FCBRE LCN, UN MBCFS DUUR, MUHQZJWBX ZJQE FUVOR BU OUBXQN RU AWZJUVZ, ZJCZ ZJQE FUVORB’Z DWBR CBEAJQNQ CBEHUNQ. JQNQ, ZJQB XUBQ. LVZ, HE KCPCBQMQ DNWQBRM AUVOR KVMZ MJNVX CBR MCE “MJUVXCBCW” (“AJCZ FCB EUV RU CLUVZ WZ”). MU, AJCZ RU HE DNWQBRM RU? ZJQE ACWZ DUN MUHQZJWBX BQA, XQZ NQCOOE QYFWZQR, ACMZQ C OUZ UD ZWHQ ACWZWBX WB OWBQM ZU LQ CLOQ ZU ZNE WZ, ZNE WZ UBQ UN ZAU ZWHQM, ZCOS CBWHCZQROE AWZJ QCFJ UZJQN CLUVZ AJCZQIQN WZ ACM, ZJQB HUIQ UB AWZJ ZJQWN OWIQM, VBZWO ZJQ BQYZ ZWHQ. AJCZ AUNSM DUN PNURVFZM AUNSM DUN PQUPOQ. AJQB W XQZ ZU C BQA ZUAB, W POCE HEMQOD VP C OUZ, XQZ C DQA HUNQ FVMZUHQNM ZJCB BUNHCO WBZU ZJQ LCN W’H LUUSQR CZ, POCE C DQA HUNQ BQWXJLUNWBX LCNM, CBR ZJQB OQCIQ LQDUNQ ZJQ MJWB-JCZMVLCW ZJWBX AQCNM UDD. WZ’M C OUVME ACE ZU HCSQ OUBX-ZQNH DNWQBRM, LVZ W’IQ BQIQN LQQB UBQ DUN DNWQBRM.